As explained in  Part 1, of the Name YHWH study,  "elohiym" and "adonay" have been used by the Yahudiym (Jews, descendants and/or residents of the tribe of Yahudah [Judah], primarily Rabbinic Judaism), as a substitute for the name dedi [YHWH, Yahuweh], in the Scriptures. The substitution of the name dedi began before the capture of Yahudah, but increased tremendously after the exile to Babel. [1]   A good example of the use of the name dedi (aside from the Tanak [OT]), before the exile, are the Lachish Letters and the Arad Ostraca.

 The Lachish Letters are 21 letters that were written on pottery fragments, also called ostraca, before the captivity and exile to Babel in 589 BCE, between Hosha’Yahu and his commander Ya’ush. The fragments show the everyday use of dedi by commoners, not kohaniym [priests].

Lachish Letter 2

“To my lord Yaush.  May dedi send you good news this very day! I am nothing but a dog, why should you think of me? May dedi help you find out what you need to know!”

Lachish Letter 5

“May dedi send you, my lord, the very best possible news this very day! I am nothing but a dog, why have you sent me these letters? I am returning them to you. I pray that dedi will let you see a good harvest today. Is TobYahu going to send me some of the king's’grain?"

During the exile and afterward, the increasing use of substitute names and titles, took the place of the name dedi, even within the Scriptures themselves, as recorded in the Massorah (see The Name YHWH Part 1 – The Tanak). This practice carried over from liturgical, to everyday writings and communication, where the kohaniym [priests], as well as the commoner no longer used the name dedi. “The Rabbis, however, were certain that the true name of God was the Tetragrammaton. In the period of the Second Temple, YHWH was never pronounced except by the high priest on Yom Kippur, on which occasion the people would prostrate themselves and recite, ‘Praised be the name of His glorious kingdom forever and ever’ (Yoma 6:2).” [2]


 Despite the fact that the Yahudiym knew that dedi was His name, they came up with a variety of terms and titles to call Him, except His name. “The name YHWH is considered as the Name proper; it was known in the earliest rabbinical works simply as the Name; also as Shem ha-Meyuhad (“the Extraordinary Name” ; Sifre, Num. 143); as Shem ha-Meforash (“the Distinguished Name”; Yoma vi. 2); as Shem ben Arba Otiyyot (“the Tetragrammaton” or “the Quadriliteral Name”; Kid. 71a); and as Yod He Waw He (spelling the letters of YHWH).” [3]    “Theodoret (c.450) showed that in his time the Jews did not pronounce the name and already called it the tetragrammaton (cf. F. Field, Hexapla, i. 90, on Ex. vi. 3, London, 1871).” [4]


The following is a list of substitutions used in the Jewish apocrypha.


“In the Apocrypha, as in the Hebrew Bible, the most common names for the deity are ‘God’ (Gr. Theos; in Ben Sira usually Elohim but sometimes El), ‘Lord’ (Gr. Kyrios, which no doubt generally stands for Adonai; but Ben Sira commonly has YHWH, represented by three yods in the medieval mss.), ‘the Most High’ (Gr. ho Hypsistos, probably for Heb. Elyon, but perhaps at times for Ha-Gavoha as in the Talmud), ‘the Lord Almighty’ (Gr. Kyrios Pantokrator for Heb. YHWH Zevaot) or simply ‘the Almighty’ (Gr. ho Pantokrator for Heb. Zevaot alone), ‘the Eternal One’ (Gr. ho Aionios (I Bar. 4:20, 22, 24, etc.) for Heb. El Olam), etc.


Among the terms used for God that are more or less peculiar to the Apocrypha are: ‘the God of Truth’ (I Esd. 4:40); ‘the Living God of Majesty’ (Add. Esth. 16:16; cf. Talmudic Heb. Ha-Gevurah); ‘King of Gods and Ruler of every power’ (Add. Esth. 14:12); ‘Sovereign Lord’ (Lat. Dominator Dominus; IV Ezra 6:11); ‘Creator of all’ (Heb. Yozer ha-Kol; Ecclus. 24:8; 51:12); and such terms as ‘the Praiseworthy God’ (El ha-Tishbahot); ‘Guardian of Israel’ (Shomer Yisrael), ‘Shield of Abraham’ (Magen Avraham), ‘Rock of Isaac’ (Zur Yizhaq) and ‘King over the king of kings’ (Melekh Malkhei ha-Melakhim), which are found in that passage of Ben Sira, inserted after 51:12 in the Greek, that has been preserved only in Hebrew.


An interesting passage occurs in IV Ezra 7:62 (132)–70 (140), where, based on Exodus 34:6–7, the author of this book lists seven names of the Most High: ‘I know that the Most High is called “the Compassionate One,” because He has compassion on those who have not yet come into the world; and “the Merciful One,” because He has mercy on those who repent and live by His law; and “the Patient One,” because He is patient toward those who have sinned, since they are His creatures; and “the Bountiful One,” because He would rather give than take away; and “the One Rich in Forgiveness,” because again and again He forgives sinners, past, present, and to come, since without His continued forgiveness there would be no hope of life for the world and its inhabitants; and “the Generous One,” because without His generosity in releasing sinners from their sins not one ten-thousandth part of mankind could have life; and “the Judge,” because if He did not grant pardon to those who have been created by His word by blotting out their countless offenses there would probably be only a very few left of the entire human race.’


The earliest occurrences (except for Dan. 4:23: ‘It is Heaven that rules’) of the substitution of the word ‘Heaven’ (God's abode) for ‘God’ (Himself) are found in the Apocrypha: ‘In the sight of Heaven’ (I Macc. 3:18), ‘Let us cry to Heaven’ (I Macc. 4:10), ‘They were singing hymns and glorifying Heaven’ (I Macc. 4:24), ‘All the people... adored and praised Heaven’ (I Macc. 4:55), ‘With the help of Heaven’ (I Macc. 12:15), and ‘From Heaven I received these [sons]’ (II Macc. 7:11). In the Christian Gospels this usage is especially common in the Judeo-Christian Gospel of Matthew, where, e.g., ‘the kingdom of Heaven’ corresponds to ‘the kingdom of God’ in the parallel passages of Mark and Luke (Matt. 3:2 = Mark 1:15; Matt. 5:3 = Luke 6:20; et al.), but also in Luke 15:18, 21: ‘I have sinned against Heaven.’ This usage still persists in such modern English expressions as ‘Heaven help us!’ “ [5]


The following are those listed in Rabbinic writings.


“The rabbis evolved a number of additional names of God. All of them, without exception, are references to His attributes, but curiously enough they are not included in the list of the permitted names enumerated in the passage in Shevu'ot: ‘the Great, the Mighty, the Revered, the Majestic,’ etc. (35a–b). The most common is Ha-Kadosh barukh Hu (‘the Holy One, blessed be He’; in Aramaic, Kudsha berikh Hu). It is an abbreviation of ‘the Supreme King of kings, the Holy One blessed be He.’ The full formula is found in the Mishnah (e.g., Sanh. 4:5; Avot 3:1), but more often the abbreviation is found (e.g., Ned. 3:11; Sot. 5:5; Avot 3:2; 5:4; and Uk. 3:12); it is by far the most common appellation of God in the Midrash. Another name is Ribbono shel Olam (‘Sovereign of the Universe’), normally used as an introduction to a supplication, as in the prayer of Onias ha-Me'aggel for rain (Ta'an. 3:8). One of the most interesting names is Ha-Makom (lit. ‘the place,’ i.e., the Omnipresent; Av. Zar. 40b; Nid. 49b; Ber. 16b), and it is explained in the Midrash: ‘R. Huna in the name of R. Ammi said, “Why do we use a circumlocution for the name of the Holy One, blessed be He, and call him Makom? Because He is the place of His world, but this world is not His [only] place” ‘(Gen. R. 68:49). The name Ha-Rahaman (‘the All-Merciful’) is commonly used in the liturgy, particularly in the Grace after Meals. In the Talmud, the Aramaic form, Rahmana, is also found (Git. 17a; Ket. 45a), as it is in several prayers from the geonic period. So also Shamayim (‘heaven’) as in Yirat Shamayim (‘Fear of God’; Ber. 16b.), however Avinu she-ba-Shamayim (‘Our Father in Heaven’; Yoma 8:9) is also used. According to the Talmud (Shab. 10b) Shalom (‘Peace’) is also one of the names of God, as is the word Ani (‘I’) in Mishnah Sukkah 4:5, and in Hillel's statement (Suk. 53a) ‘If Ani is here, all is here,’ it is given the same connotation.” [6]


Even though the Scripture is quite clear, on the use of the name dedi, the Rabbis developed teachings to justify their practice of substitution and non-use. One of which is based on the verse in Shemoth [Exodus] 3:15.  “And dedi said further to Mosheh, ‘Now you say to the sons of Yisrael, “dedi, elohey of your fathers, elohey of Abraham, elohey of Yitschaq and elohey of Yaaqob, sent me to you. ‘This is My Name forever, and this memorial for generation to generation.’ “ ‘ “  Now the word used for “forever” is  L’OLM [mlol] (lamed, ayin, lamed, mem). According to the rabbis, this rendering means to conceal.  “The sages quoted, ‘This is my name for ever, and this is my memorial unto all generations’ (Ex. iii. 15). Here the word ‘le-‘olam’ (forever) is written defectively, being without the ‘waw’ for the vowel ‘o’ which renders the reading ‘le-‘allem’ (to conceal; Kid. 71a).” [7]   This is the same note on Shemoth [Exodus] 3:15 that occurs in Rashi’s commentary to the Onkelos Pentateuch, “The Hebrew word le’olam (‘forever’) is spelled defectively, without the letter vav, so that it may be read le’alem, which means ‘to conceal,’ viz., ‘to conceal it’ that the name of God shall not be read exactly as it is written.” [8]   This justification of “hiding” the name dedi, based on a defective spelling of owlam, is not correct.


nlr  (owlam) in the Hebrew means  “ 1. long, duration, antiquity. 2.continuous existence, eternity, uninterrupted future. 3. World. 4.PBH (Post-Biblical Hebrew) mankind, humanity. 5. PBH pleasures of life. 6. MH (Mishnaic Hebrew) community. [Related to Biblical Aramaic and Aramaic  nlr , Syriac  amli (=eternity; world; whence probably Ethiopic alam, ‘eternity; world’), Arabic alam (=world). According to some scholars these words litterally mean ‘the hidden, unknown time’, and derive from base  nlr (=to hide). According to several other scholars the above words are related to Akkadian ulu, ullanu (=remote time), so that – ain in mloi, etc., would be a suffix.” [9]

nlr (elam)  “1. To hide, conceal [a base with no equivalents in the other Semetic languages.] MH was hidden.” [10]   This is interesting that elam, to hide, conceal, has no other Semetic language equivalents, yet owlam, eternity, the world, does in at least six other Semetic languages.


What is crucial to understanding how a word should be interpreted in Scripture, is to see how that word is used in other passages of Scripture. Letting Scripture interpret Scripture.  There are 30 times, in the Masoretic Text, where  nler  (owlam) and the defective spelling nlr (olm), are used in the books of Bereshiyth [Genesis] and Shemoth [Exodus]. Since the passage in question occurs in Shemoth 3, it is prudent to see the other cases of Bereshiyth and Shemoth. In all 30 cases, it is used for eternity, everlasting, eternal.  Also, in the 6 defective spellings of nlr, it is vowel pointed, by the Masorites as owlam - eternity, not elam, alam or alem -  to hide or conceal. Whether the waw was accidentally omitted by a scribe, or intentionally done, to support a practice of  “concealing”, there is no textual evidence, linguistic evidence or Scriptural evidence within the whole Tanak, to support a belief in hiding the name dedi.


Another substitution for dedi, is that of HaShem, which in the Hebrew means, “The Name”. “ The adoption of Ha-Shem (‘the Name’; and, for reasons of assonance, Adoshem) for Adonai. The adoption of Ha-Shem is probably due to a misunderstanding of a passage in the liturgy of the Day of Atonement, the Avodah. It includes the formula of the confession of the high priest on that day. Since on that occasion he uttered the Ineffable Name, the text has ‘Oh, Ha-Shem, I have sinned,’ etc. The meaning is probably ‘O [here he mentioned the Ineffable Name] I have sinned,’ and from this developed the custom of using Ha-Shem for Adonai, which is in itself a substitute for the Tetragrammaton.” [11]   “In manuscripts the Tetragrammaton was represented by first  iiii , then by  iii,  and finally by  ii  or by `d (either for  nyd , hashem, ‘the name,’ or as an abbreviation of  dedi ); these abbreviations are in frequent use in prayer-books and Hebrew Literature other than the Bible.” [12]      In the English translation of the Tanak, you will find HaShem, where the Hebrew text has dedi (YHWH) written. [13]


The Shomronim Ibriym [Samaritan Hebrews], are descendants from the ten northern tribes of Yisrael. They wrote in what is called ancient Samaritan script. This is  similar to paleo-Hebrew. Their Pentateuch is written in the Samaritan script, instead of the squared Aramaic script, that is used in the Tanak. [14] The pronunciation of Hebrew, used in their liturgy, varies slightly from the Jewish Ashkenaz pronunciation.  In speaking and other writing, they use Shema, to replace dedi, in the same manner as the Yahudiym use of HaShem. [15] Of the Shomroniym it is written, “But the great name of revelation, YHWH, appears constantly throughout the literature, without any trace of that fear at even the writing of it which characterizes Judaism. The pronunciation of the name has come to be avoided by uttering in its stead  `ny (pronounced Shemma), ‘the Name,’ corresponding to the Jewish use of  nyd , e.g. Lev. 24, 11. Yet the pronunciation itself has survived in Samaritanism, whereas long lost in the Jewish Church.” [16] The Aramaic custom was also to use Shema, “The Name”, as a substitute for YHWH. [17]


When the scribes first introduced vowel pointings to the written text of Scripture (the earliest were in 400 CE, by the Qarites [18] , to 800 CE by the Masorites), they  inserted vowel pointings to show what to pronounce (for example, Adonay), instead of dedi. Due to the ban on the name dedi, that began after the exile to Babel, the Yahudiym began to read Adonay whenever they came to dedi. “In accordance with the tradition that the Tetragrammaton was not to be pronounced, it was customary to substitute the word Adonai whenever the form  dedi  occurred, either in prayers or in reading from the Bible.” [19]   They took the Hebrew written letters and inserted the vowel points for Adonay with one variation – a sheva (eh) with the initial yod of dedi instead of the hataf-patah (ah) under the aleph of Adonay- and Christian Scholars, not understanding the practice, came up with Yehowah. [20] “This name (the Tetragrammaton) is commonly represented in modern translations by the form ‘Jehovah,’ which, however, is a philological impossibility. This form has arisen through attempting to pronounce the consonants of the name with the vowels of Adonai (ipc` = ‘Lord’), which the Masorites have inserted in the text, indicating thereby that Adonai was to be read (as a ‘keri perpetuum’) instead of YHWH. When the name Adonai itself precedes, to avoid repetition of this name, YHWH is written by the Masorites with the vowels of Elohim, in which case Elohim is read instead of YHWH.” [21]   “Instead of pronouncing the name itself, the word adonai (lord) was substituted for it. (Hence the modern ‘Jehovah’ equals the erroneous combination of the vowel sounds for Adonai with the Hebrew letters of the Tetragrammaton.)” [22]   “During the Middle Ages, Christian Students of Hebrew mistakenly read the four consonants of the Tetragrammaton with the vowels indicating the pronunciation ‘adonai’; they thereby arrived at the form YeHoVaH, which has produced the name Jehovah for God. This name Jehovah, which still survives in Christian Bible translations and Christian prayer-books, is actually a mistransliteration, and the word itself is meaningless.” [23]


Originally in the Greek Septuagint, dedi was written in the paleo-Hebrew, just as it was done in the Hebrew and Aramaic texts and the Greek texts of the Minor Prophets found at Qumran in cave 4 and the cave at Nahal Hever. [24]   Later, some of the Greek writers used their own letters for the Tetragrammaton (the four lettered name dedi). dedi ended up, inaccurately becoming PIPI (Pi, Iota, Pi, Iota), since Pi in Greek looks similar to He in Hebrew (PIPI- Greek,  hwhy – Hebrew). [25] “Similarly Jerome, Origen, and the translators of the Bible before Origen found the tetragrammaton in their manuscripts, even in the Greek translations, where the name was represented by the capital letters iota and pi, closely resembling the Hebrew yodh and he. Origen seems to have transferred the Hebrew quadriliteral in his column of transliterated Hebrew and a later hand rendered it into the Greek iota and pi, and this transference seems to have been the custom of Aquila, Symmachus, and Theodotion.” [26]


 Eventually, the Greeks  substituted Kurios, Dios and Theos for dedi. “Christian Scriptures frequently quote passages from the Old Testament in which the divine name is translated into the Greek word kyrios (Lord), or occasionally theos (God). Both of these words are generic words for God, not limited to the Hebrew God whose name is Yahweh and who is represented in the Hebrew Bible by the Tetragrammaton. Most of these Old Testament quotations in the New come from the Septuagint, a Greek translation of the Old Testament made by Jews in pre-Christian times. The Septuagint (or at least the extant, later Christian copies of it) usually renders the Tetragrammaton by kyrios; the New Testament simply follows the practice.“ [27]   “Philo gives the first sure case of a translation of the name by the Greek Kurios, ‘Lord.’ “ [28]   When the church started deviating from the Hebrew assembly, rather than be absorbed into it, many changes occurred. When the Greek texts were written, the early church fathers, did not hold the same importance to the name dedi. They did not write the name dedi in the paleo-Hebrew script, or any Hebrew script, as the Hebrews did, but substituted it for various Greek terms, further deviating from the command of dedi to call Him by His name.


In the Latin translation by Jerome (347-420 CE), the Vulgate,  Jerome wrote out the name  dedi as "Dominus", meaning lord or master. Jerome also used a nomina sacra for dominus. Nomina sacra means sacred names. “Instead of writing the name in full, the scribe would save time and space by writing only a few letters, usually the first and last, and by drawing a line above them thus: “ (KC for Kurios, XC or XPC for Christ, IC, IHC or IH for Jesus). [29]   ‘Where the Old-Latin vacillated between dns and dms as an abbreviation of dominus Jerome seems to definitely to have decided in favor of dns;” [30] The Vulgate translation was begun in 382 CE.  Jerome started by using the LXX (Septuagint-the Greek translation, allegedly by 70 scribes, hence Roman numerals LXX), but quickly decided to use the Hebrew Text. In 386, Jerome moved to Beyth Lechem [Bethlehem], to continue work from the Hebrew. The “Old Testament” portion was completed in 405, as well as the “New Testament”. Jerome’s version did not become popular immediately. At a later date it became the “received text”. [31]


 Jerome writes in his 25th letter to Marcella. “An explanation of the ten names given to God in the Hebrew Scriptures. The ten names are El, Elohim, Sabaoth, Elion, Asher yeheyeh (Ex. iii. 14), Adonai, Jah, the tetragram JHVH, and Shaddai. Written at Rome 384 A.D. “ [32]   Here are the names according to the Latin. “Primum Nomen Dei est EL, quod Septuaginta Deum, Aquilae etumologiavvvvn, ejus exprimens iscuron, id est, fortem interpretaur. Deinde ELOIM et ELOE, quod et ipsum Deus dicitur. Quartum SABAOTH, quod Septuaginta, virbatum, Aquilae, exercituum, transtulerunt. Quintum ELION, quem nos excelsum, dicimus. Sextum ESER IEJE, quod in Exodo legitur: <Qui est misit me.>  Septimum ADONAI, quem nos Dominum generaliter appellamus. Octavum IA, quod in Deo tantum ponitur: et in ALLELUIA extrema quoque syllaba sonat. Nonum tetragrammon, quod aneCfwnhton, id est ineffable putaverunt, quod his litteris scribitur, JOD, HE, VAV, HE. Quod quidam non intelligentes popter elementorum similitdinem, cum in Graecis libris repererint, PIPI legere consueverunt. Decimum, quod superius dictum est, SADDAI , et in Ezechiel non interpretatum ponitur.” [33] Obviously the letter J did not exist in 384. Rendering it as J is that of the modern publishers for this series. The Yod would have been rendered as an I as it was in IA and the example of Alleluia, not the J  that is listed for “JOD” or the “ESER IEJE”. In the second case, the publishers used the I for the first Yod, but used a J for the second, which should have been rendered IEIE.



Alphabet Changes

The early alphabets did not have a letter “J”.  First, you have Proto-Canaanite script. From that descended the paleo-Arabic, paleo-Aramaic, paleo-Hebrew, and the paleo-Phoenician. The Archaic Greek,  descends from the Phoenician.  And the Latin,  descends from the Greek. [34] See the chart below for the Phoenician letter yod.  In time it changed to one more upright and with a slight curve to the bottom, instead of a sharp angle, about 1000 BCE. The Greeks made the letter a single, vertical stroke about 600 BCE. They named the letter an Iota. It makes the same Y sound of Yod, as a consonant, but also makes an I sound, as in index. The Romans gave the “I”  its capital form about 114 CE. When “I” was the initial letter in a word, they began making an ornamental, descending stroke to the left. This began in the 1200’s and became popular in the 1500’s. Generally the initial sound of I was as a consonant. Eventually, the Letter J came to denote the Y sound and I the I sound. The letter J became different from the I, in 1630, in England.


YOD and IOTA to J and I


Phoenician  1000 BCE  Yod   




Early Hebrew 900 BCE Yod


Hebrew  500 BCE


Heb. Square 200 BCE



Modern Hebrew



Classical Greek 6th Cent. BCE    Iota


Early Latin



Latin  114 CE



Medieval Consonant



Medieval Vowel





 The letter Waw, of YHWH, was also adopted by the Greeks, from the Phoenicians. See the chart below for the
The intersecting portion on top, similar to our Y, was curved on top, like an open semi-circle. This became the Greek letter Upsilon about 600 BCE. Sometimes it is written as a Y and sometimes as a U.  The lowercase letter is written as a u. This was also adopted by the Romans, from the Greeks. The Romans gave the letter its capital V shape about 114 CE. Medieval scribes wrote two VV’s together about 1000 CE. VV was also written UU and the letter came to be known as the “double U”, written as W. Medieval scribes used the V for a consonant and used the U for a vowel. The development of W and U was very similar to the development of I and J. [35]


WAW and UPSILON to Y, U, V and W


Phoenician  1000BCE


Early Hebrew  Waw

Hebrew 7th Cent. BCE



Hebrew Square



Modern Hebrew



Classical Greek

6th century BCE



Greek lowercase



Latin   114 CE



Latin Vowel 500 CE



Medieval Scribes






With the development of the letter J and the European use of the letter V for Waw,  the corrupted spelling of Iehowah, became Jehovah.


There are several accounts to when the first use of Jehovah began. “But in the Middle Ages certain Christian theologians (the first known is Raymond Martin in 1270), copying the voweled tetragrammaton in transliteration, spelled it out to read JeHoVaH.” [36]   “The pronunciation indicated by ‘Jehovah’ (J being pronounced as Y) has been traced as far back as Wessel (d. 1489), who used Johavah and Jehovah, and Petrus Galatinus, confessor of Leo X. (1513-21).” [37]   In 1516, Pietro Columna Galatinus (1460-1540), Pope Leo 10th’s confessor, wrote a book titled, “De Arcanis Catholicae Veritatis (Concerning Secrets of Universal Truth). Galatinus was heavily into Qaballah. [38] In his book, written in Latin, he introduces the spelling of Jehovah. “It was contested by other scholars as being against grammatical and historical propriety”. But like most things of deception, that is what was eventually embraced.

Now, let us take a look at Greek, Latin, Germanic and Old English substitutes for dedi, and the roots from which they are derived.


Dios is Greek for god. According to A. B. Cook,  dios was used with Zeus, meaning “belonging to”. [39] It then came to refer to the brightness, glory, or splendor of Zeus. Later, dios came to be used as a double name Zeus Dios. Cook also mentions,  an altar found in 1893, by G. Radet, in north-eastern Phrygia, dedicated to Zeus Dios. [40] He goes on to site a Phrygian inscription from a tomb, that mentions gods above and gods below as Deos. [41] The Thracians had a sky god named Dios, whose name was coupled with Papas, as Dios Papas-Dios the Father; also a name for Zeus Papas. [42] Cook lists the different name prefixes that attest to Zeus and Dios – Dio, Deo, Dio, Diu, Deos, and Dios. [43]   The connection with Zeus and pagan gods is too strong to be ignored. We should not be using the same word, that is linked to Zeus and then came to be used of any god, for dedi. He is not Zeus, Dios, Deus, Deos, Dius, or any other variation. He is dedi.

 Theos is used like Dios. It is  a Greek word,  formed from the Latin word Deus. It means god and is used of a particular god, then latter, came to denote the God. [44] Theos was  used for many pagan gods, not just the substitution of dedi.


“The Hebrew Godhead in the later books of the Old Testament, in the Apokrypha, and in the New Testament is often styled Hypsistos, sometimes Theos Hypsistos or Kurios Hypsistos.” [45]   “Hypsistos, however, was obviously susceptible of a less material interprtation. Accordingly, in Hellenistic times, the name of Zeus Hypsistos became attached to the supreme deity of more than one non-Hellenic area. In Syria, it meant Baal-samin. In Samaria it meant Jehovah. Further denationalized, but still recognizable by his eagle, the Theos Hypsistos – often called Hypsistos and nothing more – was worshipped throughout the Greek-speaking world in the early imperial days.” [46]


·        During the time of Antiochus the IV, known also as Antiochus Epiphanes, he had coins struck which had written on them, “Antiochus Theos Epiphanes” – The God Made Manifest. [47]


·        In a Greek Papyrus, inventory number P. Oxy. 1021, there is a proclamation of Nero’s succession as Roman Emperor. Once the word god and once the word gods is used. Both times, the use is that of theos. [48]


·        There is a temple, built by the Emperor Hadrian to Zeus Hypistos. [49]


·        Greek inscription from Samaria, that is on exhibit. It reads: “One god, the ruler of all, great Kore, the invincible.” The word that is used for god, is theos. What is even more interesting about this, is that Kore is a female goddess, likened to Persephone, and was brought to Samaria during the Hellenistic period. [50]


·        The same type of inscription, was also used of Zeus, in an inscription in Rome dating to 200 CE: “One, Zeus Sarapis Helios, lord (kosmokrator) of the universe, invincible.” [51]

·        “DURA EUROPOS, ruined city on the right bank of the Euphrates between Antioch and Seleucia on the Tigris, founded in 303 B.C.E. by Nicanor, a general of Seleucus I. It flourished under Parthian rule. The site is in modern Syria, on a plateau protected on the east by a citadel built on bluffs overlooking the river, on the north and south by wadis, and on the west by a strong rampart with powerful defensive towers. Its military function of the Greek period was abandoned under the Parthians, but at that time it was the administrative and economic center of the plain extending 100 km between the confluence of the K¨aabuar and Euphrates rivers and the Abua Kamaal gorge to the south.


     " Religious architecture underwent a comparable evolution, traceable through numerous excavated buildings: the temples of Artemis Nanaïa II and Zeus Megistos  II (Figure 30/20, 23), the necropolis temple, and the temples of Artemis Azzanathkona, Zeus Kyrios, Atargatis, Bel, Aphlad, Zeus Theos, Gad, and Adonis (Figure 30/9, 2, 21, 8, 1, 15, 18). This architecture diverged more and more from the hypothetical Greek model, if in fact such a model had ever been introduced at Dura Europos.” [52]

Kurios, is defined as  “of men, having power or authority over, lord or master of, an owner, possessor, principle or chief.” [53]  


·        Under Kuria, the feminine of Kurios, it says, “the mistress, lady.” As shown in the Greek section, Kurios was used in the same titles as Zeus.


·        “…and the word Kyrios (Lord), used by Paul of Christ, was the term given in Syrian-Greek cults to the dying and redeeming Dionysus.” [54]


Latin used Domino (Dominus) for Lord. In Latin, it means lord or master. Which is where the word dominate comes from, to rule over.


·        “Dominus –  root is domus 1. master of a household, estate or other property; a son of the head of the household.  2. the manager, superintendent, controller; the master of a feast, entertainer, host.  3. A supreme ruler, sovereign, lord, applied to gods;  the master of a ship; one who is in control of a situation.  4. Lord, master, sir; applied to a lovers term of of affection. “  “Domus –  dema, root is Sanskrit damah, Greek domos, doma.   The building in which one dwells, house, home. “ [55]


·        “Dominus – (domus) the master of the house, head of the household, lord, master.” [56]


·        “Domus – (Greek root dem, demo, domos) a house, home, a dwelling, abode.” [57]   


·        "Dominus – [Sanskrit, damanas, root dam, Greek domo] one who has subdued or conquered; hence, , a master, possessor, ruler, lord, proprietor, owner.” [58]   Notice the Sanskrit root.    


·        “Domus  -a house, dwelling, abode, home [Sanskrit dama, Greek demos].” [59]


·        “Domos – (demo) a house; also the household. A part of the house, chamber room. Anything that is built up.” [60]  

Now to the Sanskrit root.   “Dam – house”  “dama – house, abode, home.” [61]


This Latin word, dominus, from Greek domos, from Sanskrit dama,  clearly has nothing to do with the self-existent dedi. It is a title that is used of heads of house, captains of ships, hosts, husbands and rulers. It is used for husbands and lovers, of men in charge of a house.  This is used of common men. We should not be using this term to substitute the name dedi.




In the German Scriptures, Herr is used in the place of dedi. Going thru Martin Luther's writings, in the 1500’s, you see his use of Herr, Herren, or Der Herr, wherever dedi occurred in Scripture.  Here are two of the variations of Herr, from other Germanic/Teutonic languages, where they have substituted the name dedi, in the Scriptures: the Dutch use Heer,  the Swedes use Herren,  (See the Old English section for Hearra). Let us take a look at the roots and uses of Herr.

Looking at the word Herr, in dictionaries, this is what we find:


·        “Another name for the gods is found in Gothic and Scandinavian, and may be etymologically connected with Old Persian anhu = Latin esus, herus (=lord); viz. Gothic ansis, Old Norse aesir (=the gods);” [62]

·        “her – (heris) [akin to German herr] owner, heir.”  “heres – literally an owner, young owner.” [63]

·        “hera – mistress of the house.” [64]  

·        “herus – see  erus.” [65]  

·        “erus – [sanskrit root har; seize] the master of a house or family, master, lord, owner, proprietor.” [66]

 Herr was used and is still used as a title. Nowadays, the Germans use Herr/Hera, the same as we do Mister/Madame or  Lord/Lady,  in English. dedi is not just a Lord or Mister or a Sir. He is the Eternal, Self-Existent One.



·        “God” is not His name either. “God” is  a pagan term, used of pagan gods, of which dedi is not one of. Websters lists god as Old High German “Got” and Old Norse “Goth, Guth”. German used Gott, Dutch used Goede and God. The Swedes used Gud. These are the names of deities like Zeus, the chief male deity in a pantheon of gods.


·        “Gott – 1. A god  [67]

·        “Gotterdammerung – twilight of the gods.” (This is the final end of all the pantheon of the gods, in Germanic/Teutonic mythology.) [68]

See, the Old English “Gode” and the Teutonic deity Godan/Wodan, further on.




In the English texts of Scripture, we see a further deviation. In the oldest passages, dryten was used before lord was adopted. The 1380 copy of John Wycliffe’s New Testament, uses Lord. 1530, William Tyndale’s translation uses Lorde, except in a few places like the 6th chapter of Shemoth [Exodus], verse 3, which used Iehouah. [69] Miles Coverdale’s translation, in 1535, uses Lorde. The Most Sacred Bible, by Richard Taverner, in 1539, used Iehoua. The Holie Bible, by Gregory Martin, in 1609, used Lord. The Holy Bible (KJV) of 1611, used Lord. From there on out, it was always Lord.



A Comprehensive Old- English Dictionary, by Arthur R. Borden, Jr.,  lists dryhtin, dryhten and drihten for Lord. This is what was substituted for the name dedi, in early Scriptures, hymns and sermons, prior to the use of Lord.


·        “Dryhten, drihten – noun, m. lord, prince, ruler, king, the Lord, God, Christ.” [70]

·        “Dryhten – (dryhtnas) m. powerful lord.” [71]

·        “Dryht – band of retainers, force, multitude, warrior-band.” [72]

·        “dryten – a lord,  lordly, royal.” [73]


Ben Levick writes, “War was endemic to the kingdoms of sixth, seventh and eighth century Britain. An Anglo-Saxon ruler of this period was above all else a warlord, a dryhten, as the Old-English sources put it. His primary duty was to protect his people against the depredations of their neighbours and to lead them on expeditions (fyrds) of plunder and conquest.” [74]


From the Peterborough Chronicle: An Eyewitness Account, we find this history of the word dryhten :  “Another word which shows various aspects of society in the British Isles during the reign of King Stephen is the word ‘drihten’. It is etymologically derived from the Old English word ‘dryhten’. (Bradley). According to Stratten (whose work Bradley revised), ‘drihten’ means ‘lord’; ‘Dryhten’ means the ‘Lord’, referring to God. Both words came into Middle English from the Old English, specifically the Anglo Saxon dialect. Until the thirteenth century, it often meant ‘army’. In languages related to Old English, it had similar meanings. For example, in the Gothic of the period, it means ‘soldier’. A related Old English word is ‘drighfare’, it means ‘march, procession, throng’. All these words and definition refer to a specific kind of protection: a military type against the outside social forces of evil, whatever they may be. The word’s use evolved according to the needs of society. It started out referring to military might, often with a group as the agent; then it involved protection, through military might, often with one person as the agent.


In the Peterborough Chronicle, ‘Dryhten’ and ‘Drihten’ are both used to reference God. In this passage, there was so much cruelty, people thought Christ was asleep (Burrow and Turville-Petre, 77). But the child ‘William re-enacts the Crucifixion’ and through him, ‘. . . he maket ure Drihten wunderlice and manifældlice miracles’ (80). [‘Our Lord performed many miracles’]. ‘Lord’, ‘lord’, and ‘God’ are not the only definitions of this word. It also means ‘ruler’ and ‘chief’. It therefore implies, in my opinion, people who are in charge of a group of other people, and therefore are responsible for their welfare. For this reason, I believe the same word is used for the Lord, meaning Christ and God, and for God himself. In the Peterborough Chronicle, God is responsible for the well being of His people on earth, and performs the miracles through William described above to save His people from their suffering under Stephen.


Out of curiosity, I looked up the word ‘lord’ in the American Heritage Dictionary. I wanted to see what the origin of this word is. Namely, I wanted to see if the etymological origin of the word is ‘drihten’. According to the American Heritage Dictionary, the etymological origin of ‘lord’ is ‘hlafweard’: ‘hlaf’ (bread) and ‘weard’ ‘ward’. In my mind, this word started out referring to someone responsible with guarding bread, and expanding through time to its current usage. We therefore have another example of a word whose meaning adapts to societal changes.” [75]


According to Eric Wodening, we see a connection between dryhten and Odin, The Old English Rune Poem First Aett ,  Translation and Commentary,  “The first is that the word dryhten does not necessarily refer to the Christian God or Jesus Christ. Its Old Norse cognate dröttin was used in several titles of the god Ódinn, whom the Anglo-Saxons knew as Wóden. As the word literally means ‘troop leader’, it is perhaps a fitting title for the god of the battle slain.” This form “drottin” is also mentioned by Johan Olfsson-Lauri Hakulinen, “Nevertheless, ancient Germanic loans in Finnish and Estonian such as (here Finnish forms given) *kuningas* 'king', *ruhtinas* 'prince (cf. Old English *dryhten* 'lord', Swedish *drottning* 'queen'),” [76]


Ben Levick also writes, “It is noteworthy that the early sources use the language of personal lordship to express the obligations owed a king. When Wiglaf followed Beowulf into combat against the dragon, he did not speak of his duty to ‘king and country,’ but of the responsibility of a retainer to serve and protect his lord. In fact, amongst the early Anglo-Saxons a king was simply the lord of the nobles. Even the term cyning [king] literally only means ‘of the kin’ and denoted a member of the royal line, while the office of king was expressed by the titles hlaford [loaf- or land-lord] and dryhten [war-lord]. “ [77]



Here is an example of Old English writing, that uses hlaford and dryhten, in connection with Woden.


Worship: Bedes or Prayers to the Gods  by Swain Wodening Canote



Wæs þu Wóden hál----Wæs þu hál wundra hláford

(Wassail Wóden---Wassail wonders' lord)

Wæs þu écelic hál---Ond speacuted simble hafaþ

(Be ever hale---and success ever have)


Wóden sigefæder---Esa mihtig wealdend

(Wóden victory father---Æsir's mighty ruler)

Sídhæt ond Wegtamere---Gréat wittig dryhten

(Broadhat and way tamer---Great wise drihten)




Another Old English word for lord is Hearra.


·        “Hearra – n. m. high one, lord, master. “ [78]

·        “Hearra, haerra, herra, hierra, heorra – lord, master. See heorra. See heahra, hearra, heah. “ [79]

·        “Heahra – see heah”.  “Heah –  1. adj. High, tall, elevated, lofty, great, exalted, illustrious, profound, proud, arrogant, high-class, sublime, important, haughty, deep, right (hand).  2. Adv. High, aloft.”: [80]

·        “Heahfrea – High Lord, and Heahgod – Most High God.” [81]


Her, Herr, Hearra, and all the other derivatives, simply mean high and are connected to the gods.



Lord comes from the Middle English “loverd”. [82] Old English was “hlaford”. “Halford is a contraction of hlaf and weard. Half means loaf, bread and weard means ward, keeper. Lord actually means keeper of the bread.


·        “Hlaford – noun, m. lord, master, ruler, husband, the Lord, God. Hlaf – noun, m. loaf, bread, cake, food, sacramental bread.” [83]

·        “Hlaford – m. lord, master. Hlaf – m. bread, loaf.” [84]


Another theory for the name “lord”, comes from the name of the Germanic/Teutonic god Lodur (see the Teutonic deities listed further on).



The Old English “Gode” derived from the Germanic.


·        “God – pagan god, God, good.” [85]

·        “Gud – battle, warfare.” [86]

·        “Gode – god. “ [87]

·        “In Gothic the priest is called gudja (derived from gud=God), Danish runic inscriptions have preserved the form gudi (later godi).” [88]



Let’s  take a look at some specific deities and see how the deities remain the same, but the names have been changed, ever so slightly, not to protect the innocent, but to protect the lie. It does not matter what the substitute was, or all the changes and variations used, these names and titles are still what the pagan nations used for their deities.


“The worship of gods is always distinct from nature-worship; the very conception of deity presupposes a certain moral element. Tacitus, who was much better informed, enumerates a series of German gods whose Roman names only thinly disguise their Teutonic originals. “ [89]    “There is much that is older. The veneration of the gods conceived as persons is to be found in the mythology of Indo-Germanic parent race. Apparently Ziu is etymologically the same as Old Indian Dyaus, the Greek Dieus = Zeus, the Roman Jupiter (Gen. Jovis from Diovis). The term used by the Scandinavians to denote gods collectively, nom.  pl. tivar, corresponds exactly to the Latin divus, Old Indian devas, Lithuanian devas, Old Irish dia. Our Old German word “God” is probably cognate to the Old Indian adjective ghoras = terrible, awe-inspiring, venerable, which occurs as an attribute of the gods of Veda. These words seem to throw light upon the relation of the Indo-Germanic worshipper to his divinity. He regarded it as being whose power he feared, whose aid he reverently solicited.” [90] “In Scandinavian a feminine has been formed, asynjur (=goddesses), whilst in the other Teutonic languages there are no special names to denote goddesses, except O. H. G. (Old High German) gutin, Ags. Zyden (=goddess). It is significant that the word god was originally of neuter gender, to include masculine and feminine.” [91]


Sanskrit sources for:

Deva, Dyaus

·        “Diva [form dyaus] heaven; radiance, brillance, day.” [92]  

·        “Deva – heavenly, divine, celestial, deity, divinity, god, king, prince, goddess, queen, 

                princess.” [93]  

·        “Dyu – sky, brightness, glow, day (div).” [94]

·        “Deva – god, deity.” [95]

·        “Devi – goddess, female deity, wife of a god, corresponding to deva.” [96]

·        “Dyaus (pita)- (-pitar, -pitr; “sky father”) of the god of the sky, generally regarded as

                 the father.” [97]


In Teutonic/Germanic mythology, there is a triune of male gods. These three are the core of the myths and are frequently together. “In Germany we have a record, dating from the time immediately preceding the introduction of Christianity, of the three ancient gods under the names Woden, Thuner, and Saxnot; they are the heathen idols to be renounced by the convert at baptism.” [98]   “These three ‘mighty and benevolent Aesir’ once came down to the seashore, where they found Ask and Embla lying lifeless, without breath, without soul, and without blood; Odin gave them breath, Hoenir gave them soul, and Lodur gave them bodily color. According to Prose Edda, however, it was the sons of Borr, namely Odin, Vili, and Ve, who created Ask and Embla. Odin, Hoenir and Lodur, or Odin, Vili, and Ve thus function as a sort of trinity in the Aesir.” [99]   “With his brothers Vili and Ve, Odin lifted the earth out of the depths of the sea. From this act of creation was doubtless derived his name Gautr. Apparently it was the same three gods (though called Odin, Honir and Lodurr) who gave life to the first pair of human beings.” [100]   “In the oldest Teutonic religion it is not possible to prove the occurrence of more than three male divinities, and a triad of gods is usually attributed to the Teutons by the historiographers of later times. The names given are Mercury, Jupiter, and Mars, names which really denote the Teutonic gods Woden, Thunor, and Tiw.” [101]    “Through the use of their names in the designations for the days of the week, Tiu, Wodan, Donar, and Frija are with absolute certainty ascertained to be ancient Teutonic divinities. While we cannot infer from this that they were the only ones, this group of four universally worshipped gods forms, at any rate, the real center of Teutonic mythology. Notwithstanding the divergent opinions of E.H. Meyer and, in part, of Mogk, there is very little doubt as to their real nature: Tiu was the god of the sky; Wodan, the god of the wind or the dead; Donar, the god of thunder;  Frija, the goddess of the sky rather than that of the earth. “ [102]


We can see that these three male deities have several different names. Lets begin with Odin. “Some of Odin’s names were, Herjan (God of battles), Har (The High One), Thridi (Third), Gaut (The Creater).” [103] From the preceding passages,  we see some of his other names: Woden, Wodan, Godan, Gautr. From this we see the deity whose name lent itself to Gott, Gud and God. He is the first of the 3.  Next, we see the second of the Three, whose names are: Vili, Hoenir, Honir, Thumer, Thunor, Thor, Donar. Finally, we come to the third of the trio.


This third is Ve of the Odin, Vili and Ve. He is also called Lodur, Lodurr, Saxnot, Tyr, Tiw, Tiu, Ziu. This is the deity, where we see the use of Lord come into play. “The third of the three great gods of the people, called by Latin authors Mars, was worshipped in Germany under the name Ziu (or Saxnot). Among the tribes that emigrated to England, he bore the corresponding name of Tiz or Tiw (Eng. Teusday, Anglo Saxon Tiwesdaez); the Scandinavians called him Tyr.” [104]   “Tiw’s symbol was the sword, as is also clear from his Saxon name of Saxnot (sword comrade). In the forms Tyr, Tiw, Ziu, the name of the god is perhaps identical with the Latin Jupiter, Greek Zeus, Old Indian Dyaus, which was similarly regarded by the Romans and Greeks as incomparably the highest and most majestic of names.” [105]


What is even more interesting about these three, is that they all tie in with Zeus, at some point or another. The root of all three, seems to be Tiwaz (similar to the Mesopotamian Tammuz, who also used a T, for Tau, as his sign?).  “We are told of a god worshipped by the Germans whom the Roman equated with Mars. His Germanic name is thought to have been Tiwaz, and he was remembered in the Scandinavian pantheon as Tyr. Tiwaz received battle sacrifices, but he differed from Wodan, whose main gift was inspriation. Little is known of Tyr, except that men turned to him for help in war and put his initial, the runic sign for T, on weapons in the early Anglo-Saxon period.” [106]   “By the Viking Age, however, Tiwaz had been almost wholly forgotten, and his place seems to have been taken by Odin and Thor.” [107]   Where Tiwaz was associated with both Odin and Thor, he was also associated with the third, Tyr (Tiu, Tiw, Ziu).


“The etymology of the name ‘Zio’ (Tiu) that identifies the god with Dyaus (Zeus, Jupiter) as the old Indo-European god of the sky seemed at one time absolutely certain, but is today questioned by several linguistic scholars. Whether or not we accept this identification, there can be no doubt that Tiu was originally a sky god. That he frequently appears as a god of war among the Teutonic peoples is not surprising, inasmuch as gods of war are frequently sky gods originally, as e.g. Ares and Mars, which names are not infrequently used as translations for Tiu.” [108]   All of these deities are sky gods, as is Zeus. Since Zeus descends from Dyaus, let’s check this name out.


Dyaus is the Hindu creator, the sky god, the father of Surya, the sun god. He is symbolized by the bull. [109]   “And the particular Hindu god chosen by the Christian authority, Sir M. Monier-Williams, as ‘the one god’ is interesting for another reason. It is Dyaus (‘the sky’) or Dyaus-Pitar (‘Sky- Father,’ like Zeus and Jupiter). It is clear that this was, as in Mongolia generally, the great god at a very early date in nature- worship. From Europe to the coast of China the ‘Heavenly Father’ is the outstanding god, but ‘heaven’ is the physical heavens, or the sky, and we thus have nearly half the race testifying to the ‘solar myth’ theory of religion.” [110]   “Originally, so far as we can make out, the great god of the invading Greeks, as of the Vedic Hindus, was the noble and various sky itself; it was probably this sky-god who with progressing anthropomorphism became Uranus, or Heaven, and then the ‘cloud-compelling,’ rain-making, thunder-herding Zeus.” [111]


Zeus, Jupiter and Dyaus are all sky gods, and all father gods. “One of the central characteristics of both Zeus and Jupiter is that they are considered to be the ‘fathers’ of many of the other gods, and to be the symbolic ‘fathers’ of the universe as a whole. Jupiter's name actually shows this: the Romans also called him ‘Diespiter’ and understood this name to mean ‘Dies pater’ = ‘Father of the Day’ or ‘Sky Father’. ‘Pater’ (=’Father’) is also a common epithet of the Greek Zeus, who is frequently addressed as ‘Zeus pater’ (=’Father Zeus’). Now, the similarity of the names ‘Jupiter’ and ‘Zeus pater’ is noticeable, and anyone conversant with the Indo-European hypothesis might well wonder whether the names were related. If one then learns that there is a sky god in the ancient Indian pantheon named ‘Dyaus-pitar’ and that this god shows many of the same characteristics ascribed to Zeus and Jupiter, it becomes difficult not to see the same pattern at work in mythology that we have observed in the case of languages.” [112]   The Association between all these sky gods, becomes stronger and more interwoven, as information is revealed.


Not only do they share the sky and father status, but some of the symbols associated with them are also similar.  “Sometimes, as a god of fertility, he (Zeus) is conceived as incarnate in the sacred bull; it is as a bull that he mates in Cretan myth with Minos’ wife Pasiphae, and begets by her the monstrous Minos-bull, or Minotaur.” [113]   “The bull was sacred because of its strength and potency; it was often an associate, disguise, or symbol of Zeus and Dionysus, and perhaps preceded them as a god.” [114]   This was also the animal symbol for Dyaus. Thunderbolts seem to be another connection.  “…or even as a sign of Zeus the Thunderer cleaving the sky with his bolts.” [115]   This is also associated with Jupiter and Donar (Thor), previously mentioned, as well as Dyaus, the Sanskrit god.  “Dyaus (Dyaush) –Indra, He has four hands: the first holds vajra (thunderbolt); one holds a ankusha (hook) to seize the enemies. He is depicted as a four-armed man on a white elephant carrying a thunderbolt. It is he who slashes the clouds with his thunderbolt to release the rain.” [116]   There seems to be a consistent theme, with these sky deities, even if they don’t retain the exact name.


As you can easily see, all of these deities are one and the same. A little may change here and there, but the source of them all, is the same root stock. “For the history of the Teutonic religion, it is therefore of little importance to know that the common Teutonic stem god is originally neuter, and is probably cognate with the Sanscrit root hu (to invoke), and has no connection whatever with the word ‘good’. The name Aesir has been compared with Sanscrit Asuras. This word, too, is found among all Teutons; Jordannes uses it in speaking of the demi-gods from which the Gothic nobility is descended. Proper names with As, Ans, and Os as the first element are encountered on every side. Among the Anglo-Saxons and Frisians we find the form ese. Among the Norsemen we are familiar with the Aesir (feminine Asynjur), and in such compositions as Landas (god of the land), asmegin (divine power), the word is practically synonymous with ‘god’.” [117] “Cleanthes identifies him (God) with Zeus in a monotheistic hymn worthy of Ikhnaton or Isaiah: Thou, O Zeus, art praised above all gods: many are thy names and thine is all power for ever.” [118]

As the research has made very apparent, “Lord” and “God”, in any language, should not be used of dedi, since they refer to specific pagan deities and then eventually, came to represent deities in general. dedi is His name. You cannot use substitutes without directly violating His command, to call on His name. The name dedi is not the name of a pagan deity; it does not have any connection with the sky or the heavens or the sun and its brightness; it is a contracted form of  Ehyeh Asher Ehyeh – I Am that I Am or I Will Be what I Will Be (Shemoth [Exodus] 3:14). dedi is the Self-Existent, Eternal One, without beginning or ending of days. This is what dedi commanded us to call Him. Shemoth 3:15, “And dedi said further to Mosheh, ‘Now you are to say to the Beniy Yisrael [Sons of Israel],  dedi the elohey of your fathers,  elohey of Abraham, elohey of Yitschaq, and elohey of Yaaqob, sent me to you. This is My name forever, and this is My remembrance for generation to generation.’ “





[1] Encyclopedia Judaica,  under “God” and “YHWH”.

[2] The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia, 1905,  under God, Names Of, pg. 7.

[3] The Jewish Encyclopedia, 1905, Vol. IX, Under Names of God, pg. 162.

[4] The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, under Yahweh, pg.470.

[5] Encyclopedia Judaic, under El.

[6] Ibid.

[7] The Jewish Encyclopedia, 1905, Vol. IX, under Names Of God, pg.162.

[8] The B’nai B’rith Jewish Heritage Classics, Onkelos Pentateuch With Rashi’s Commentary, pg. 89.

[9] A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the Hebrew Language, Ernest Klein, pg. 466.

[10] Ibid. pg. 473.

[11] Ibid. subsection –In the Talmud.

[12] The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia, 1905, under God, Names Of, pg.7.

[13] The Stone Edition, Tanach, Mesorah

[14] Early History of the Alphabet by Joseph Naveh.

[15] Benyamim Tsedaka, editor of the Samaritan News, Holon, Israel

[16] The Samaritans, The earliest Jewish Sect, James Alan Montgomery, pg. 213.

[17] Encyclopedia Judaica, under YHWH, subsection YHWH

[18] History of the Karaites by Nathan Schurr.

[19] The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia, 1905, under God, Names Of, pg. 7.

[20] Encyclopedia Judaica under YHWH.

[21] The Jewish Encyclopedia, 1905, Vol. IX, under The Names of God, pg. 160.

[22] Dictionary of Judaism in the Biblical Period – 450 B.C.E. to 600 C.E., Vol. 1, under I Am.

[23] The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia, 1905, under God, Names Of, pg. 7.

[24] Biblical Archaeology Review, Vol. 4.

[25] BAR, Vol. 4

[26] The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, under Yahweh, pg. 470.

[27] BAR VOL. 4

[28] The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, under Yahweh, pg. 470.

[29] Light From the Ancient Past, Jack Finegan, pg, 403.

[30] The Bible In Its Ancient and English Versions, H. Wheeler Robinson, pg. 114.

[31] Encyclopedia Britannica Micropaedia, Vol. 6.

[32] A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, Vol. VI, pg. 43.

[33] Patrologiae Cursus Completus, Hieronymus, Pgs. 428,429.

[34] History of the Alphabet by Joseph Naveh.

[35] Encyclopedia Americana, WorldBook Encyclopedia

[36] The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia, 1905, under Jehovah, pg. 55.

[37] The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, under Yahweh, pg. 470.

[38] Oxford English Dictionary under Jehovah, Encyclopedia Judaica under Galatinus and Qaballah.

[39] A. B. Cook, of  “Zeus, A Study in Ancient Religion”, pg. 3,4.

[40] Ibid. pg. 280.

[41] Ibid. pg. 278.

[42] Ibid. pg. 277.

[43] Ibid. pg. 276.

[44] The Classic Greek Dictionary, George Ricker Berry, pg. 315.

[45] A.B. Cook, pgs. 888, 889, states in footnote 32.

[46] Ibid. pg. 889.

[47] The Story of Civilization, The Life of Greece, Vol. 2, Will Durant, pg. 574

[48] Select Papyri, Vol. II., by A. S. Hunt and C. C. Edgar.

[49] Zeus A Study in Ancient Religion by A. B. Cook, Pg. 888

[50]   Rockefeller Museum in Jerusalem.

[51] Israel Exploration Journal, Vol. 25, no.1, pgs. 15-17.

[52] Encyclopedia Iranica under Dura Europos

[53] The Classic Greek Dictionary, George Ricker Berry,  pg. 400.

[54] The History of Civilization, Vol. 3, Caesar and Christ, pg. 588. Footnote to Guignebert, Christianity, 88.

[55] Oxford Latin Dictionary , 1968.

[56] Cassell’s Latin Dictionary, pg. 201.

[57] Ibid. pg. 202.

[58] A Latin Dictionary, by Charlton T. Lewis, Ph. D.,

[59] A Latin-English Dictionary, John T White, pg. 195.

[60] The Classic Greek Dictionary, George Ricker Berry, pg. 170.

[61] The Sanskrit-English Dictionary, by Arthur A. MacDonell, pg. 116.

[62] Northern Mythology, Kauffmann. Pg. 13.

[63] A Latin-English Dictionary, Thomas Hewitt Key, pg. 285.

[64] A Latin-English Dictionary by John T. White and D. D. Oxon, pg. 261.

[65] A Latin Dictionary, by Charlton T. Lewis, pg. 850.

[66] Ibid. 659.

[67] The Oxford-Harrap Standard German-English Dictionary Vol. II  F-K..

[68] The Oxford-Harrap Standard German-English Dictionary  Vol. II  F-K, “Gods of the Ancient Northmen,” by Georges Dumezil, pg. 61.

[69] William Tyndale’s Five Books of Moses Called the Pentateuch, J.I. Mombert, pg. 183.

[70] A Comprehensive Old-English Dictionary, Arthur R. Bordon, Jr., pg. 307.

[71] English-Old English, Old English-English Dictionary, Gregory K. Jember.

[72] Ibid.

[73] An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary, T. Northcote Toller, pg. 159.

[74] Ben Levick, a Living History expert. Who teaches all over England. He founded Angelcynn Living  

    History Society, in England. Angelcynn is Old English for ‘the English People.” Ben Levick resides in

    Kent England. His homepage is at   .

[75] Peterborough Chronicle, Cecily Clark, Oxford University Press.

[76] The Structure and Development of the Finnish Langauge, Johan Olfsson-Lauri Hakulinen.

[77] See footnote 45.

[78] English-Old English, Old English-English Dictionary, Gregory K. Jember.

[79] A Comprehensive Old-English Dictionary, Arthur R. Bordon, Jr.

[80] Ibid.

[81] Ibid.

[82] Websters Dictionary under Lord.

[83] A Comprehensive Old-English Dictionary, Arthur R. Bordon, Jr.

[84] English-Old English, Old English-English Dictionary, Gregory K. Jember.

[85] English-Old English, Old English-English Dictionary, Gregory K. Jember.

[86] A Comprehensive Old-English Dictionary,  Arthur R. Bordon, Jr.

[87] Ibid.

[88] Northern Mythology, Kauffmann. Pg. 22.

[89] Ibid. Pg. 12.

[90] Ibid. Pgs. 11,12.

[91] Ibid. Pg. 22.

[92] The Sanskrit-English Dictionary, by Arthur A. MacDonell, pg. 119.

[93] Ibid. Pg. 124.

[94] Ibid. Pg. 126.

[95] Iconographic Dictionary of the Indian Religions, by Gosta Liebert, pg. 70.

[96] Ibid. Pg. 72.

[97] Ibid. Pg. 84.

[98] Northern Mythology, Kauffmann. Pg. 32.

[99] Norse Mythology, Munch. Pg. 20.

[100] Northern Mythology, Kauffmann. Pg. 35.

[101] Ibid.  Pg. 31.

[102] The Religions of the Teutons, Saussaye. Pg. 283.

[103] Norse Mythology, Munch. Pg. 7.

[104] Northern Mythology, Kauffmann. Pg. 67.

[105] Ibid.

[106] Scandinavian Mythology, H.R. Ellis Davidson. Pg. 52.

[107] Ibid. Pg. 56.

[108] The Religions of the Teutons, Saussaye. Pg. 244.

[109] Worship of the Sun II, Chapter XII, titled the Worship of Nature, by Sir James G. Frazer.

[110] The Story of Religious Controversy, Chapter III, by Joseph McCabe.

[111] The Story of Civilization, The Life of Greece, Will Durant, pg. 177.

[112] Ancient "Sources" for Greek Myths.

[113] The Story of Civilization, The Life of Greece, Will Durant, pgs. 13,14.

[114] Ibid. pg. 179.

[115] Ibid. pg. 14.

[116] Encyclopedia of Vedic Gods.

[117] The Religion of the Teutons, Saussaye. Pg. 282, 283.

[118] The Story of Civilization, The Life of Greece, Will Durant, pg. 653.