Manetho [Manethos and Manethon]
is called the Father of Egyptian History, though only fragments of his writing
survive. He was a Greco-Egyptian priest born at Sebennytos
in the Nile Delta, and lived during the reign of Ptolemy I and Ptolemy II, approximately
300 BCE and a contemporary of Berosus (Chaldean chronologist). He was governor of
Manetho divided the kings of
Manetho divided Egyptian history into dynasties which were essentially ruling houses, of which 30 are recognized and used today, dating from unification around 3100 BCE up until the death of the last native Egyptian ruler Nectanebo II in 343 BCE. Two additional dynasties were then added onto these; the 31st or Second Persian Period, and the 32nd or Macedonian rulers followed by the Ptolemies.
Important to note, that during this time period (approx. 300 - BCE), it is believed that a number of historians sought to make genealogies of their nations, from creation, until their time period. Each historian wrote to make their nation the predominant one, to supposedly lend credence to their claims. This is understandable since it takes place after the time of Alexander the Great. When he died, his kingdom was divided between his generals. Alexander the Great left no sons as successors.
Alexander was dying, he was asked by his generals, to whom he would leave his
empire, “To the strongest,” he said. Once the world heard of his death, revolts
against the Macedonian rule, began to break out.
Between the Diadochi (Greek for successors), his
generals, the empire was divided between Antipater, Perdiccas, Eumenes, Craterus, Antigonus, Ptolemy, Seleucus, and Lysimachus. Antipater took
Manetho worked under two of these Ptolemey's; Berosus, the Babylonian historian, under Alexander the Great and Antiochus of the Seleucid empire. This is also the time period that Ptolemy II commissioned the Greek Septuagint to be translated from the Hebrew Tanak.