Seals are impressions on clay bullae, tablets and jars.
Seals vary in shape from place of origin, as well as time period.
Some seals from Syria, Egypt, Anatolia and Canaan were cylindrical, thus called cylinder seals.
There are also scarab seals, stamp seals and the more rare conoid, cubic and rectanglular.
Bullae, in particular, is a lump of clay that has been
impressed by a seal, primarily attached to a
document or other object that it sealed. The documents would be rolled and tied by a cord. The bullae
was impressed either on the knot or the cord itself to ensure that it could not be opened without breaking the seal
or cutting the cord. The bullae were dried, but not fired, which would have burned whatever they were sealing.
Due to fires, many of these bullae became fired and have survived time.
Coins, throught time, have been issued in various metals,
as a means of currency for trade.
For the historian and archaeologist, these coins that survive, provide insights and confirmation to
various rulers and their involvements, in a similar fashion to that of official seals.
The following sections will provide information,
primarily associated with biblical applications,
though not necessarily reinforcing the history passed on by latter scribes.